This paper explores the issue of cyber bullying as a current form of violence among the youth. It seeks to define the term and set it apart from traditional bullying. Causes, bullying tactics, effects and preventative measures are also reviewed.
Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(3), 277-287. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.11.014
Dr. Tokunaga is a professor who specializes in the psychological implications of technology use. According to this journal article, cyber bullying is a form of harassment that is carried out using internet based communication media. He distinguishes cyber bullying from traditional bullying and reviews demographic variables such as age and gender that affect bullying. He attributes the rise of this evil to the fact that 97% of youth are connected to the internet in some way and also to the fact that the web offers some level of anonymity for offenders.
Hoff, D. L., & Mitchell, S. N. (2009). Cyberbullying: causes, effects, and remedies. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(5), 652-665. doi:10.1108/09578230910981107
This journal article by Dr. Hoff and Dr. Mitchell explores the underlying causes of cyber bullying and the methods used by perpetrators. Research indicates that this sort of violence usually arises in relationships, particularly when one party wants to retaliate for a wrong done to them by the other. The victim is usually the party who is unable or unwilling to counter the attack against them. It involves insults, sharing private images and videos, personification, exclusion and flaming.
Gordon, S. (2017). 10 Facts About Cyberbullying Every Educator Should Know. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/facts-about-cyberbullying-for-educators-460708